Functional vs. Non-functional: Main Categories of Software Testing

Functional Testing:

Functional Testing is a type of test that verifies whether the software we are testing complies with all requirements and needs. Its main objective is to check the functionality of the software. Functional tests encompass black-box testing and do not concern themselves with the software's source code.

Types of Functional Testing include:

  1. Unit Testing: It involves testing the smallest part of the software and aims to verify that even the smallest component works as expected. Unit testing is performed by software developers and helps document the code development process since each unit of code is thoroughly tested before moving on to the next.

  2. Integration Testing: This type of functional testing checks whether different components of the software work together correctly. While individual units may pass tests, they can introduce errors when combined. Integration testing helps detect and rectify these errors before they impact production.

  3. User Acceptance Testing (UAT): UAT involves testing the software based on real-world scenarios. It is conducted by actual users to validate the software against business requirements. UAT is the final testing phase before the software goes live.

  4. Regression Testing: Regression tests ensure that changes made to the application or environment do not break existing functionality. They act as a verification mechanism and should be conducted after every code change or fix, not just focusing on the specific change.

  5. Smoke Testing: Smoke testing is a quick test to determine whether the most critical functions of a project are working as expected. Its purpose is to assess whether functional testing can proceed.

Non-Functional Testing:

Non-functional testing is a type of software testing used to evaluate all non-functional aspects of a software product, such as performance, usability, and reliability.

Types of Non-Functional Testing include:

  1. Security Testing: This type of testing ensures that the software product is protected from security vulnerabilities that could lead to significant risks or data breaches.

  2. Portability Testing: Portability testing evaluates how well an application can adapt to different environments and platforms when it is moved from one to another.

  3. Performance Testing: Performance testing measures the application's speed, stability, and scalability to ensure it meets expected performance standards.

  4. Load Testing: Load testing involves gradually increasing the number of users or requests to test how well the system performs under heavy loads. It helps determine the system's stability and capacity limits.

  5. Stress Testing: Stress testing involves subjecting the system to extreme conditions or loads to assess its resilience and identify potential points of failure.

Author: Kübra Nur Sayan